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Kanseri y'ubugabo iri kwiyongera: 6,500 bakaswe ubugabo mu myaka 10 muri Brazil

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Mu mwaka wa 2018, João, Umunya-Brazil uri mu kiruhuko cy’izabukuru, yagiye kwivuza nyuma yuko abonye ikibyimba ku bugabo bwe (igitsina gabo cye).

Uyu mugabo w’imyaka 63 agira ati: “Natangiye kugana amavuriro kugira ngo menye icyo ari cyo, ariko abaganga bose bambwiye ko cyatewe n’uruhu rwinshi rurenze nuko banyandikira imiti.”

Nubwo yabonye iyo miti, icyo kibyimba cyakomeje gukura. Gitangira kugira ingaruka mu buzima bwe n’uwo bashakanye, ndetse imibonano mpuzabitsina hagati ya João n’umugore we iragabanuka. Ati: “Twari [twahindutse] nk’abavandimwe.” Yiyemeza kumenya icyari kirimo kuba.

Mu gihe cy’imyaka itanu, João, iri si ryo zina rye nyakuri, yakomeje kugana abaganga b’impuguke, bakomeza kumuha indi miti ndetse bakata igice cy’umubiri we kugira ngo gisuzumwe muri laboratwari (‘laboratoire’). Ati: “Nta kintu na kimwe cyabicyemuye.”

Nuko, mu mwaka wa 2023, ahabwa igisubizo cy’icyo arwaye – João bamusanzemo kanseri y’ubugabo.

Ati: “Ku muryango wanjye, byabaye ibintu bibi cyane bitunguranye, cyane cyane kuko byabaye ngombwa ko nkatwa igice cy’ubugabo bwanjye kigakurwaho. Numva ari nkaho naciwe umutwe.

“Ni ubwoko bwa kanseri udashobora kuganiraho n’abantu kuko bishobora kurangira bihindutse urwenya.”

Kanseri y’ubugabo ntikunze kubaho, ariko ikigero cy’abayirwara bashya n’ikigero cy’abo yica birimo kwiyongera ku isi.

Nkuko bikubiye mu bushakashatsi buherutse gutangazwa, Brazil, iwabo wa João, ifite kimwe mu bigero byo hejuru cyane cy’abagabo bashya bayirwara, aho ifite ikigero cya 2.1 kuri buri bagabo 100,000.

‘Nari mfite ubwoba bwo kubagwa’

Hagati y’umwaka wa 2012 na 2022, hatangajwe abagabo 21,000 barwaye iyo kanseri muri icyo gihugu, nkuko minisiteri y’ubuzima ya Brazil ibivuga.

Ibyo byavuyemo impfu 4,000 ndetse, mu myaka 10 ishize, abagabo barenga 6,500 bakaswe ubugabo bwabo – muri rusange ibyo bingana n’abagabo babiri bakaswe ubugabo bwabo buri munsi.

Leta ya Maranhão, ya mbere icyennye cyane muri leta zigize Brazil, ni yo yasanzwemo umubare munini cyane ku isi w’abarwayi bashya ba kanseri y’ubugabo, bari ku kigero cya 6.1 kuri buri bagabo 100,000.

Ibimenyetso bya kanseri y’ubugabo akenshi bitangirana no kuribwa ku bugabo kudakira, no gusohora ibintu binuka cyane. Abantu bamwe bava amaraso ndetse n’ubugabo bwabo bugahindura ibara.

Iyo iyi kanseri itahuwe hakiri kare, hari amahirwe menshi cyane yo gukira iyo umuntu yivuje, harimo nko kubaga igice cy’umubiri kirwaye kigakatwaho, ubuvuzi bwo kunyuzwa mu cyuma (‘radiotherapy’), n’ubuvuzi bwo kwica uturemangingo twiyongera vuba cyane mu mubiri, ubuvuzi buzwi nka ‘chemotherapy’.

Ariko iyo iyi kanseri itavuwe, bivamo gukata ubugabo bwose cyangwa igice cyabwo, ndetse hari n’igihe biba ngombwa ko indi myanya ndangagitsina yegereye ubugabo, nk’udusabo tw’intanga-ngabo, na yo ikatwa.

Muri Mutarama (1) uyu mwaka, João yakaswe igice cy’ubugabo bwe, ndetse avuga ko cyari igihe kigoye.

Agira ati: “Ni ikintu utigera na rimwe utekereza ko kizakubaho, ndetse iyo bibaye, ntabwo ushobora kugenda ngo ubibwire abantu.

“Nari mfite ubwoba bwo kubagwa, ariko nta yandi mahitamo yari ahari. Mu byumweru bya mbere byakurikiye kubagwa numvaga nifitemo akababaro, sinshobora kubihakana. Kutagira igice cy’ubugabo bwawe biteye ubwoba.”

Abarwayi bamwe bakatwa ubugabo bwabo bwose uko bwakabaye, bigahindura ubuzima bwabo.

Mauricio Dener Cordeiro
Dr Mauricio Dener Cordeiro, wo mu ishyirahamwe rya Brazil ry’abaganga bavura indwara zo mu rwungano rw’inkari, avuga ko isuku y’umuntu ku giti cye ari ingenzi

Thiago Camelo Mourão, muganga w’indwara zo mu rwungano rw’inkari ku kigo kivura kanseri cya AC Camargo Cancer Center, mu mujyi wa São Paulo muri Brazil, agira ati: “Iyo habayeho guca igice cy’ubugabo, inkari zikomeza gusohokera mu bugabo.

“Ariko iyo habayeho gukata ubugabo bwose, umwenge inkari zisohokeramo ushobora kwimurirwa ku mwanya [uzwi nka ‘perineum’] ujya kwegera mu kibuno, uri hagati y’isaho y’udusabo tw’intanga-ngabo no mu kibuno, bigasaba ko umurwayi anyara yicaye ku bwiherero.”

Dr Mauricio Dener Cordeiro, wo mu ishyirahamwe rya Brazil ry’abaganga bavura indwara zo mu rwungano rw’inkari, avuga ko ubwandu bukomeje kubaho bwa kanseri y’inkondo y’umura (HPV), ari “kimwe mu biteza ibyago byinshi”. HPV ishobora kwandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina ndetse rimwe na rimwe ishobora guteza kanseri, zirimo na kanseri yo mu kanwa no ku bugabo.

Cordeiro agira ati: “Gukingira abantu ku bwinshi HPV ni ingenzi cyane kubera ukuntu bitanga umusaruro mwinshi mu kurinda uburwayi bw’uruhu bufitanye isano na yo.”

Ariko yongeyeho ko ibigero byo gukingira (gucandaga mu Kirundi) HPV muri Brazil biri munsi y’ikigero gicyenewe kugira ngo koko urwo rukingo rube ingirakamaro.

Ati: “Muri Brazil, nubwo urukingo ruhari, ikigero cyo gukingira HPV kiracyari hasi ku bakobwa – kigera kuri 57% gusa – naho ku bahungu, ntikirenga 40%.

“Ikigero cyifuzwa cyo gutuma hirindwa indwara ni [ugukingira kuri] 90%.”

Yemeza ko amakuru atari ukuri agamije kuyobya ajyanye n’urwo rukingo, n’impungenge zidafite ishingiro zijyanye n’akamaro karwo, no kuba nta bikorwa bihagije by’ubukangurambaga bwo kwikingiza, byagize uruhare mu kuba abantu bacye ari bo bafata urwo rukingo.

Urubuga rwa internet rw’ikigo cy’ubuvuzi cy’Ubwongereza (NHS) rutangaza ko kunywa itabi na byo bishobora kongera ibyago byo kurwara kanseri y’ubugabo.

Urwo rubuga runavuga ko ushobora kugira ibyago byinshi byo kurwara kanseri y’ubugabo niba “ugira ibibazo mu gusubiza inyuma uruhu rutwikira ubugabo kugira ngo usukure ubugabo bwawe (icyo kibazo cyo kunanirwa kurusubiza inyuma kizwi nka ‘phimosis’)”.

Dr Cordeiro ati: “Iyo umugabo atarangaje icyo gice cyo hejuru cy’ubugabo ndetse akananirwa gusukura neza uruhu rutwikiriye ubugabo, bisohora ibintu byikusanya.

“Ibi bituma habaho ahantu heza cyane hakwandurira indwara ziterwa n’udukoko [‘bactéries’].

“Iyo ibi bikomeje kugenda bibaho, bihinduka ibyago byuko haduka ikibyimba.”

Urukingo rwa kanseri y'inkondo y'umura
Inzobere zivuga ko gukingira abantu ku bwinshi kanseri y’inkondo y’umura ari ingenzi cyane mu kwirinda kanseri y’ubugabo

Ariko Brazil si cyo gihugu cyonyine aho kanseri y’ubugabo irimo kwiyongera. Ubushakashatsi buherutse gutangazwa bugaragaza ko umubare w’abarwaye iyo kanseri urimo kwiyongera ku isi.

Mu mwaka wa 2022, ikinyamakuru gitangaza ubushakashatsi ku buvuzi cyitwa JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, cyatangaje ibyavuye mu isesengura ryakorewe ku bantu benshi, ririmo amakuru mashya y’ubushakashatsi bwakorewe mu bihugu 43.

Ubwo bushakashatsi bwasanze abarwayi bashya ba kanseri y’ubugabo benshi cyane barabonetse hagati y’umwaka wa 2008 na 2012 muri Uganda (2.2 kuri buri bagabo 100,000), ikurikirwa na Brazil (2.1 kuri buri bagabo 100,000) na Thailand (1.4 kuri buri bagabo 100,000). Ahabonetse abarwayi bashya bacye cyane ni muri Kuwait (0.1 kuri buri bagabo 100,000).

Itsinda ry’abakoze ubu bushakashatsi, riyobowe na Leiwen Fu na Tian Tian bo kuri Kaminuza ya ‘Yat-Sen University’ yo mu Bushinwa, ryagize riti:

“Nubwo ibihugu biri mu nzira y’amajyambere bikirimo umubare munini cyane w’abarwayi bashya n’abicwa na kanseri y’ubugabo, abarwayi bashya barimo kwiyongera muri byinshi mu bihugu by’i Burayi.”

Abo bashakashatsi batangaje ko kanseri y’ubugabo yiyongereye mu Bwongereza, iva kuri 1.1 igera kuri 1.3 kuri buri bagabo 100,000, hagati y’umwaka wa 1979 na 2009.

Mu Budage ho, abarwayi bashya ba kanseri y’ubugabo biyongereyeho 50%, bava kuri 1.2 bagera kuri 1.8 kuri buri bagabo 100,000, hagati y’umwaka wa 1961 na 2012.

Iyi mibare yitezwe ko iziyongera, nkuko bitangazwa n’urubuga rukurikirana uko kanseri imeze ku isi, rwitwa Global Cancer Registries. Rugereranya ko bitarenze mu mwaka wa 2050, umubare w’abarwayi bashya ba kanseri y’ubugabo ku isi uziyongera birenze 77%.

Inzobere zivuga ko iyi mpinduka ishobora guterwa ahanini n’umubare w’abagenda basaza. Inzobere zivuga ko umubare munini cyane w’abarwayi bashya ba kanseri y’ubugabo uboneka mu bagabo bageze mu myaka ya za 60.

Dr Cordeiro ati: “Kanseri y’ubugabo ni indwara idakunze kubaho ariko ishobora no kwirindwa cyane.”

Agira abagabo inama yo gukoresha agakingirizo mu gihe cy’imibonano mpuzabitsina, ndetse ko kubagwa bagakatwaho uruhu rutwikira hejuru ku bugabo igihe baba bafite cya kibazo cya ‘phimosis’, bishobora gufasha mu kugabanya ibyago byo kurwara kanseri y’ubugabo.

Neil Barber, ukuriye ubushakashatsi ku barwayi b’urwungano rw’inkari mu kigo Frimley Health NHS Foundation Trust, mu Bwongereza, yongeraho ati:

“Kanseri y’ubugabo ni nkaho itazwi [itabaho] mu bantu bakaswe [basiramuwe].

“Isuku nke n’ubwandu bwo munsi y’uruhu rutwikiriye ubugabo, n’ibibazo nka ‘phimosis’ bituma bigorana gusubiza inyuma uruhu rwo ku bugabo no gutuma hakomeza gukorerwa isuku neza, ni ibintu biteje ibyago. Ibi bifitanye isano n’ibyago byinshi by’ubwandu muri rusange.

“Ibitera ibyago bizwi, birimo n’imibonano idakingiye, by’umwihariko kudakoresha udukingirizo, isuku nke ikarushaho kongera ibyago muri iyi nzira.”

Tugarutse kuri João, ubu ategereje ibisubizo by’ibizamini aherutse gukorerwa, azabona muri uyu mwaka.

Ati: “Nizeye ko ibi bizamini bizagaragaza ko nzaba narakize.

“Ubu, nyuma yo gukatwa [igice cy’ubugabo], ububabare bwarashize, ndetse nkomeje kumva meze neza cyane. Ariko nzabaho iminsi nsigaje [y’ubuzima bwanjye] mfite ubugabo bw’igice.”

Ikigo cy’Ubwongereza cy’ubushakashatsi kuri kanseri kivuga ko abarenga 90% by’abagabo basanzwemo kanseri y’ubugabo ntikwirakwire mu bindi bice byegereye ubugabo bya ‘lymph nodes’ byo mu bwirinzi bw’umubiri, bakomeza kubaho imyaka itanu cyangwa irenga.

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